Sandp global esg scores

S&P 500 ESG Index 429.83 0.04% S&P 500 ESG Leaders Index 430.98 0.08% S&P 500 ESG Elite Index 417.12 -0.09% Dow Jones Sustainability World Index 2,208.73 -0.15% S&P Global 1200 Fossil Fuel Free Index 2,889.72 0.37% S&P Global Ex-Japan LargeMidCap Carbon Efficient Index 596.64 0.07% S&P 500 Net Zero 2050 Paris-Aligned ESG Index …

Sandp global esg scores. Enjoy Superior Customer Service. Know you have 24x7x365 backup and specialist assistance from ESG specialists and research analysts across our global offices. Access essential sustainability data intelligence via a single, streamlined desktop platform, combining tech-forward productivity tools, unrivalled market insights, and 24/7 customer …

The world’s largest manufacturer of gloves makes its debut in prestigious Sustainability Yearbook 2022 with an Industry Mover distinction. Shah Alam, Wednesday 2 February 2022 With an enhanced and even stronger commitment to Environmental, Social and Governance, "ESG", Top Glove is pleased to announce its first ever inclusion with …

The ESG score comprises three aspects of a company's operations: the Environment, Social, and Governance factors. Therefore, this paper examines the need for overall ESG scores and their impact on ...The S&P Global ESG Scores are conducted by S&P Global, one of the world’s leading providers of research and ratings in the field of socially responsible investing (SRI). Over 7,800 globally leading companies in sustainability from 61 different industries evaluated in the 2022 Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA) were considered for …Hankook Tire & Technology Co., Ltd. Auto Components Republic of Korea Top 1% S&P Global ESG Score Pirelli & C. S.p.A. Auto Components Italy Top 1% S&P Global ESG …Nonetheless, MSCI borrows the grading scale, and the aura of credibility, of standardized credit ratings. MSCI converts its numerical scores for E, S, and G into overall ratings such as AAA, BBB ...The S&P Global ESG Scores package provides access to granular sustainability-related data points collected as part of the S&P Global Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA) process from public and additional disclosures. The data package combines company disclosures checked against reliable public sources, media and stakeholder analysis, and ...A company’s total ESG score is the weighted average of all criteria scores and their respective weights. Each individual ESG dimension score (e.g., a company’s “E” score) is the weighted average of all criteria scores and weights within a specific ESG dimension. Total ESG scores range from 0-100, with 100 representing best performance.In 2023, the environmental, social, and governance (ESG) scores of the largest banks worldwide varied markedly across different score providers. JPMorgan Chase, the largest bank globally in terms ...Jun 14, 2020 · The CSA generates a total ESG score for every company covered as well as individual scores for the three dimensions, with 100 being the best score in each case. This graph visualizes the CSA. The size of the segments reflects the financial materiality assigned at each level as well as the weight applied in the score aggregation process.

The S&P DJI ESG data provides scores for companies participating in the Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA), and those analyzed by S&P Global ESG Research’s analysts starting in 2013. Company participation rates have seen a steady rise from the 280 initial respondents in 1999 to the 1,436 companies in 2020.S&P Global ESG Scores Methodology Disclaimer: This methodology document is valid up until and including the 2022 CSA methodology year, and refers to the S&P Global ESG Scores without any modelling approaches (prior to the 2023 CSA called ‘S&P Global ESG Scores’, as of the 2023 CSA called ‘S&P Global CSA Scores’).S&P Global ESG Score = 51/ 100. Download Disclosure Analysis Brochure. The charts above show the breakdown of the S&P Global ESG Score by question-level scores based on disclosed data and question-level scores based on modeling approaches in the absence of disclosure. This company is a Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA) survey respondent. Aug 15, 2023 · August 15, 2023 at 10:47 AM PDT. Listen. 4:58. S&P Global Inc. ’s surprise decision to stop providing ESG scores alongside bond-issuer assessments has created a divide at the top of the credit ... Credit Ratings S&P Global Ratings Scores & Factors 3,500+ corporation, 600+ banks 2017 Credit Ratings S&P Global Ratings with RatingsXpress® 9,400 global issuers/84,000 securities, 570 sovereign, international public finance and government entities/13,000 securities, 720 u.s. public finance entities/680,000 securities,Joerg Rueedi, Senior ESG Analyst, S&P Global Sustainable1 COVID-19 upended employee expectations – now companies must adapt 46 Esther Whieldon, ... a single ESG score may never be able to fully capture all of these. That is why being part of the ongoing stakeholder dialogue is critical – toThis will lead to a lower score for the company compared to peers. If 95% of the companies in an industry score between 80 and 90, a company scoring 95 is far above the peers. In an industry where the score range is between 50 and 90, then a score of 95 is further above. ESG. The number of investors who deliberately apply an ESG lens to investing is growing rapidly worldwide as more come to realize the risks of separating such issues from business fundamentals. S&P Global …

Jan 18, 2024 · ESG. Invesco S&P 500 ESG ETF Acc. ETF. United Kingdom. SPXE. The S&P 500 ESG Index is a broad-based, market-cap-weighted index that is designed to measure the performance of securities meeting sustainability criteria, while maintaining similar overall industry group weights as the S&P 500. Informing investment decisions. Over the past 24 years, the CSA has grown into a leading corporate sustainability database. Within one year of its launch on the S&P Global Capital IQ Pro platform, the ESG Scores module has attracted capital market stakeholders overseeing USD 30 trillion in Assets Under Management (up from USD 26 trillion in the beginning of 2022). The final E pillar score is the weighted average score of each key issue followed by a normalization procedure by the industry. It could account for E score differences between ESG rating providers. Another major drawback of ESG scoring is the deficiency of quality ESG ratings data (Bennani et al., Citation 2018; Li & …Data points collected. The Sustainability Yearbook 2022 considered over 7500 companies assessed in the 2021 Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA). This page provides the ranking of the 716 companies selected for this year’s Yearbook based on their S&P Global ESG Scores calculated from the CSA.

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Credit Ratings. Credit Ratings are opinions about credit risk. They can express a forward-looking opinion about the capacity and willingness of an entity to meet its financial commitments as they come due, and also the credit quality of an individual debt issue, such as a corporate or municipal bond, and the relative likelihood that the issue ...The S&P DJI ESG data provides scores for companies participating in the Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA), and those analyzed by S&P Global ESG Research’s analysts starting in 2013. Company participation rates have seen a steady rise from the 280 initial respondents in 1999 to the 1,436 companies in 2020.This paper tests how financial performance indicators and combined ESG score for large-cap stocks impact on stock return. In particular, we examine how market capitalization, price to book value, Sharpe ratio and ESG score of large-cap firms in Europe are related to their stock performance. We consider a panel data consisting of six …ESG. The number of investors who deliberately apply an ESG lens to investing is growing rapidly worldwide as more come to realize the risks of separating such issues from business fundamentals. S&P Global …

ESG Scores Explained: Structured Finance Request for Comment. On June 6th, Moody's published a Request for Comment (RFC) for an Appendix to its ESG methodology, covering structured finance transactions, including covered bonds. The RFC will introduce considerations for the assignment of ESG scores to structured finance …Sustainability has become a significant issue for firms and investors throughout the world, although it cannot be attained if policies impact the stability of firms’ dividend policies. In this paper, we use data from the Stoxx Euro 600 firms from 2000 to 2019 and the ESG (environmental, social and governance) scores from Thomson …NEW YORK, Feb. 16, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- S&P Global (NYSE: SPGI) launched a new public webpage highlighting S&P Global's full suite of environment, social and …We publish our S&P Global ESG Score methodology on our website, including the rationale for our questions, the format, background information and the weights. Through the S&P Global Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA), over 2,200 companies engage directly with us to provide in depth information on ESG, and we cross …The proposal, to be announced by the European Commission next week as part of a crackdown on “greenwashing”, will require ESG rating agencies — including those from outside the bloc — to ...Today, the UN-backed PRI is a thriving global initiative with over 1,600 members representing over $70 trillion assets under management. PRI’s role is to advance the integration of ESG into ...S&P Global has launched a publicly accessible website allowing investors to compare environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance. 2 March 2021 / Global. The scores of more than 9,000 companies, representing 95% of global market capitalisation, are shown. The performance-based scores range from 0-100, based on …This will lead to a lower score for the company compared to peers. If 95% of the companies in an industry score between 80 and 90, a company scoring 95 is far above the peers. In an industry where the score range is between 50 and 90, then a score of 95 is further above. May 9, 2022 · Environmental, Social, And Governance: How We Apply Our ESG Evaluation Analytical Approach: Part 2, June 17, 2020. This report does not constitute a rating action. Primary Credit Analysts: Gregg Lemos-Stein, CFA, New York + 212438 1809; [email protected]. Nora G Wittstruck, New York + (212) 438-8589; Informing investment decisions. Over the past 24 years, the CSA has grown into a leading corporate sustainability database. Within one year of its launch on the S&P Global Capital IQ Pro platform, the ESG Scores module has attracted capital market stakeholders overseeing USD 30 trillion in Assets Under Management (up from USD 26 trillion in the …3. ESG is not measurable, at least to any practicable degree A third objection is that ESG, particularly as reflected in ESG scores, cannot be accurately measured. While individual E, S, and G dimensions can be assessed if the required, auditable data are captured, some critics argue that aggregate ESG scores have little meaning. TheHow does S&P Global measure and report the environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance of companies? Find out in this brochure that explains the methodology, data sources and scoring system of S&P Global ESG Scores, a comprehensive and transparent tool for assessing ESG risks and opportunities.

Our public ESG Ratings & Climate corporate search tool allows you to search over 2,900 companies that are constituents of the MSCI All Country World Index (ACWI). You can search by company name or ticker to view the ESG and climate risks and opportunities the company might face, including: Implied Temperature Rise, Decarbonization Targets, …

S&P Global ESG Score = 48/ 100. Download Disclosure Analysis Brochure. The charts above show the breakdown of the S&P Global ESG Score by question-level scores based on disclosed data and question-level scores based on modeling approaches in the absence of disclosure. This company is a Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA) survey respondent. ESG Score vs ESG Rating. ESG “ score ” and ESG “ rating ” are used often interchangeably. A key difference lies in the use of numerical scores and letter ratings, which differs between rating agencies. For example, MSCI uses letter ratings ranging from CCC (Laggard) to AAA (Leader). ISS uses numerical scores ranging from 1 (best) to 10 ...Environmental, Social, And Governance: How We Apply Our ESG Evaluation Analytical Approach: Part 2, June 17, 2020. This report does not constitute a rating action. Primary Credit Analysts: Gregg Lemos-Stein, CFA, New York + 212438 1809; [email protected]. Nora G Wittstruck, New York + (212) 438-8589;The report analyzes the global market by region as well as country, with forecasts from 2023 through 2028. The report surveys the competitive landscape of the …S&P Global has launched a publicly accessible website allowing investors to compare environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance. 2 March 2021 / Global. The scores of more than 9,000 companies, representing 95% of global market capitalisation, are shown. The performance-based scores range from 0-100, based on …It is a relative score measuring a company’s performance on and management of ESG risks, opportunities and impacts compared to their peers within the same industry …S&P Global Ratings. Commercial Head of ESG, EMEA. P. (+44) 20-7176-2184. E. [email protected]. The number of investors who deliberately apply an ESG lens to investing is growing rapidly worldwide as more come to realize the risks of separating such issues from business fundamentals. S&P Global Ratings ESG Evaluation, and its related ... Trucost Environmental Assess environmental impacts and costs, identify, and manage environmental and climate risks. S&P Global ESG Scores Company-, dimension-, and criteria-level scores based on the S&P Global Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA) process. Gain insight into deep range of environmental, social and governance data that’s ... May 18, 2020 · The S&P Global ESG Scores are backed by 20 years of SAM's comprehensive assessments enabling market participants to optimize their portfolios and allocate capital towards positive ESG performance." Evan Greenfield, Global Head of ESG at S&P Global, adds: "The S&P Global ESG Scores are driven by deep corporate engagement derived from private and ... S&P DJI ESG Scores are based on S&P Global ESG Scores, which are derived from the S&P Global Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA). The S&P Global CSA -- developed and enhanced since 1999 -- is a questionnaire-based analysis process focused on ESG factors: with the aim of identifying the

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Sectors with very high or high environmental credit risk account for 5.1% of the total debt we rate, flat from 2022 but up from 4.2% in 2020, according to our updated heat map of environmental risk. Methodologies, Scores, Classifications, and Heat Maps. Moody’s insights on the credit impact of ESG factors and latest analysis of sustainable ...S&P Global ESG Scores are delivered via Xpressfeed™, integrating other ESG datasets with over 200 financial, market and referential datasets to power integrated investment signals The acquisition of the CSA from asset manager RobecoSAM in January 2020 triggered strong interest from leading financial institutions in the CSA scores.Credit Ratings. Credit Ratings are opinions about credit risk. They can express a forward-looking opinion about the capacity and willingness of an entity to meet its financial commitments as they come due, and also the credit quality of an individual debt issue, such as a corporate or municipal bond, and the relative likelihood that the issue ...Trucost Environmental Assess environmental impacts and costs, identify, and manage environmental and climate risks. S&P Global ESG Scores Company-, dimension-, and criteria-level scores based on the S&P Global Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA) process. Gain insight into deep range of environmental, social and governance data that’s ... FTSE Russell’s ESG Scores and data model allows investors to understand a company’s exposure to, and management of, ESG issues in multiple dimensions. The ESG Scores are comprised of an overall Score that breaks down into underlying Pillars and Theme Exposures and Scores. The Pillars and Themes are built on over 300 individual …ESG data covers 80% of global market cap across 76 countries; more than 450 ESG data points and 100 ESG analytics going back to 2002; ... ESG Scores. In 2019 new Thomson Reuters ESG Scores have been added to Datastream. The ESG Scores are calculated and available for all companies and fiscal periods.The following table includes ESG Scores and other descriptive information for all Guggenheim Solar ETFs listed on U.S. exchanges that are currently tracked by ETF Database. Easily browse and evaluate ETFs by visiting our Responsible Investing themes section and find ETFs that map to various environmental, social and governance themes.S&P Global ESG Scores are delivered via Xpressfeed™, integrating other ESG datasets with over 200 financial, market and referential datasets to power integrated investment signals The acquisition of the CSA from … ….

During the last years, some ESG providers have started to provide ESG risk scores that can be considered as measures of the firms’ exposure to ESG-related risks. However, as stated by Ferriani and Natoli ( 2021 ), these new scores have substituted the old ones with a radical change in perspective: from indicators of sustainability virtue to …The world’s largest manufacturer of gloves makes its debut in prestigious Sustainability Yearbook 2022 with an Industry Mover distinction. Shah Alam, Wednesday 2 February 2022 With an enhanced and even stronger commitment to Environmental, Social and Governance, "ESG", Top Glove is pleased to announce its first ever inclusion with …The proposal, to be announced by the European Commission next week as part of a crackdown on “greenwashing”, will require ESG rating agencies — including those from outside the bloc — to ...August 15, 2023 at 10:47 AM PDT. Listen. 4:58. S&P Global Inc. ’s surprise decision to stop providing ESG scores alongside bond-issuer assessments has created a divide at the top of the credit ...Overcome Current and Future Market Challenges with S&P Global ESG Scores. Deep on the True Performance of Thousands Companies with Global Coverage and Granular …The following premium research is available from RatingsDirect - S&P Global Ratings’ real-time, Web-based source for credit ratings, research, and risk analysis. 28-Jun-2022 11:41 HKT; Toyota Motor Corp. The stable outlook reflects our view that Toyota Motor will maintain its leading global market position and stable profitability.Join us in this webcast to understand the rationale behind incorporating modeling approaches into the S&P Global ESG Scores, and the role of S&P Global CSA Scores. Learn how to interpret the results for your company; and explore the updated features in the Benchmarking Database to better communicate your results to external …S&P Global has launched a publicly accessible website allowing investors to compare environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance. 2 March 2021 / …S&P Global ESG Score = 47/ 100. Download Disclosure Analysis Brochure. The charts above show the breakdown of the S&P Global ESG Score by question-level scores based on disclosed data and question-level scores based on modeling approaches in the absence of disclosure. This company is a Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA) survey respondent. ESG. The number of investors who deliberately apply an ESG lens to investing is growing rapidly worldwide as more come to realize the risks of separating such issues from business fundamentals. S&P Global … Sandp global esg scores, S&P ESG data (S&P Global ESG Scores and Trucost) Learn more about S&P Global. S&P Global Market Intelligence, formerly S&P Capital IQ and SNL Financial, is a division of S&P Global (NYSE: SPGI). The firm is a leading provider of financial and industry data, research, ..., Environmental, Social, And Governance: How We Apply Our ESG Evaluation Analytical Approach: Part 2, June 17, 2020. This report does not constitute a rating action. Primary Credit Analysts: Gregg Lemos-Stein, CFA, New York + 212438 1809; [email protected]. Nora G Wittstruck, New York + (212) 438-8589;, Significantly, higher ESG disclosure scores are observed for S&P 500 firms with larger boards of directors, with boards that are more gender diverse, that allow CEO duality, and that link ..., S&P Global ESG Scores are measured on a scale of 0 – 100, where 100 represents the maximum score. Points are awarded at the question-level, with an average of 130 per company, based on our assessment of up to 1,000 underlying data points according to pre-defined scoring frameworks that assess their availability, quality, relevance, and ... , Learn more about S&P Global ESG Scores. S&P Global Trucost Data & Analytics. S&P Global Trucost has been assessing risks relating to climate change, natural resource constraints, and broader environmental, social, and governance factors since 2000. Today Trucost intelligence continues to help corporations, financial institutions, and ..., Complete: ESG scores built using just public data exhibit a transparency bias, where companies that disclose more are rewarded with inflated ESG scores, irrespective of how well they manage these issues. By engaging companies via the CSA, S&P Global ESG Scores are uniquely positioned to account for both company transparency and their , The S&P DJI ESG data provides scores for companies participating in the Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA), and those analyzed by S&P Global ESG Research’s analysts starting in 2013. Company participation rates have seen a steady rise from the 280 initial respondents in 1999 to the 1,436 companies in 2020., ESG. The number of investors who deliberately apply an ESG lens to investing is growing rapidly worldwide as more come to realize the risks of separating such issues from business fundamentals. S&P Global …, 3. ESG is not measurable, at least to any practicable degree A third objection is that ESG, particularly as reflected in ESG scores, cannot be accurately measured. While individual E, S, and G dimensions can be assessed if the required, auditable data are captured, some critics argue that aggregate ESG scores have little meaning. The, Data points collected. The Sustainability Yearbook 2022 considered over 7500 companies assessed in the 2021 Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA). This page provides the ranking of the 716 companies selected for this year’s Yearbook based on their S&P Global ESG Scores calculated from the CSA. , Advertisement. Tesla stock was kicked out of the S&P 500 ESG Index on Wednesday despite its focus on making electric vehicles, solar panels, and battery packs. S&P Global executed its fourth ..., Mar 21, 2022 · Douglas L. Peterson, President and CEO of SP Global (NYSE: SPGI), has published an open letter entitled, " Transparency and Impact: The Essential Principles of ESG ." Geared towards the financial markets, the open letter focuses on Mr. Peterson's opinions on ESG scores, and the importance of disclosures and transparency. The letter is available on SP Global's website and includes an ... , ESG indicators were introduced by S&P Global Ratings in 2021 following similar moves by Moody’s Investors Service and Fitch Ratings. They were meant to be …, S&P Global ESG Score = 51/ 100. Download Disclosure Analysis Brochure. The charts above show the breakdown of the S&P Global ESG Score by question-level scores based on disclosed data and question-level scores based on modeling approaches in the absence of disclosure. This company is a Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA) survey respondent. , ESG Performance. The AXA Group is committed to integrate environmental, social and governance (ESG) factors across its business and to regularly report on sustainability issues to enable all its stakeholders, in particular the rating agencies, to evaluate its ESG performance. ESG Integration. ESG Reporting. SRI ratings and ethical indexes., +1-212-438-2296, S&P ESG. The S&P ESG indices are broad-based, market-cap-weighted indices designed to measure the performance of securities meeting sustainability criteria, while maintaining similar overall industry group weights as their underlying benchmark. Overview Indices Index-Linked Products. , S&P Global ESG Scores. Companies participating in the S&P Global Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA) have long understood the importance of considering ESG criteria in their business strategies. By directly reporting key sustainability metrics and benchmarking their relative performance on a wide range of industry-specific issues, they ..., Joerg Rueedi, Senior ESG Analyst, S&P Global Sustainable1 COVID-19 upended employee expectations – now companies must adapt 46 Esther Whieldon, ... a single ESG score may never be able to fully capture all of these. That is why being part of the ongoing stakeholder dialogue is critical – to, The methodology of the S&P 500 ESG Index employs rules-based selection using an adjusted version of the S&P Global ESG Scores. Companies may be excluded from the index if they have a low ESG score relative to global industry peers, are involved in controversial business activities, perform poorly relative to the UNGC principles, or are …, S&P Global ESG Scores provide multiple layers of ESG intelligence with three underlying Environmental, Social, and Governance & Economic Dimension Scores, and an average of 30 Criteria Scores informed by 61 industry specific approaches.­ ­ With coverage of 10,000 companies representing approximately 99% of global market capitalization, the ..., Apr 23, 2021 · A company’s total ESG score is the weighted average of all criteria scores and their respective weights. Each individual ESG dimension score (e.g., a company’s “E” score) is the weighted average of all criteria scores and weights within a specific ESG dimension. Total ESG scores range from 0-100, with 100 representing best performance. , INDEX ANNOUNCEMENT S&P Dow Jones Indices’ Consultation on S&P Global Business Involvement Screens and S&P Global ESG Scores Transition – …, S&P Global ESG Scores (‘ESG Scores’) measure companies’ exposure to and performance on key ESG risks and opportunities, the quality and completeness of their public disclosures, and their awareness of emerging but underreported ESG issues. , PDF:Methodology and Score Changes Review 2023. This document, shared in March, provides an overview of the key changes to the assessment criteria for the 2023 CSA, as well as affected industries (compared to last year’s CSA). PDF:CSA Methodology Update 2023. Provides companies with information on the rationale and intent behind general and ... , Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to explore the state of S&P 500 companies’ transparency by analyzing their Bloomberg ESG (Environmental-Social-Governance) disclosure scores. Additionally, the effects of industry sector, firm size, and governance practices on transparency are examined., The S&P Global Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA) Score is the S&P Global ESG Score without the inclusion of any modeling approaches. Interpretation ESG Scores are measured on a scale of 0 100, where 100 represents the maximum score. Points are awarded at the question-level (on average 120 per company) based , Joerg Rueedi, Senior ESG Analyst, S&P Global Sustainable1 COVID-19 upended employee expectations – now companies must adapt 46 Esther Whieldon, ... a single ESG score may never be able to fully capture all of these. That is why being part of the ongoing stakeholder dialogue is critical – to, S&P Capital IQ Financials provides global standardized financial statement data for over 150,000 companies, including over 95,000 active and inactive public companies. S&P Capital IQ Financials allows you to extend the scope of your historical analysis and backtesting models with consistently standardized data from all filings of a company's ..., Haiti, as an example, has an ESG score of 99, while the well-fed United States stands far down the list at just over 58. “People Worry Most About the Immediate Crisis”, Mar 21, 2022 · One of the most important tools that companies and investors utilize to assess sustainability performance is an ESG score. An ESG score is typically a headline number that presents the provider’s opinion of a company or entity’s performance against pre-defined ESG criteria. Company engagement, consistent, comparable, and assured disclosures ... , S&P Global ESG Score = 51/ 100. Download Disclosure Analysis Brochure. The charts above show the breakdown of the S&P Global ESG Score by question-level scores based on disclosed data and question-level scores based on modeling approaches in the absence of disclosure. This company is a Corporate Sustainability Assessment (CSA) survey …, The Invesco S&P 500 Equal Weight ETF (Fund) is based on the S&P 500 Equal Weight Index (Index). The Fund will invest at least 90% of its total assets in securities that comprise the Index. The Index equally weights the stocks in the S&P 500 Index. The Fund and the Index are rebalanced quarterly. Shares are traded throughout the day in the ...